The oldest inhabited city in the region. Formerly Purushapura, the capital of the great Kushan Empire, featuring a legendary golden stupa that was visible for miles around. The city gained a new lease on life as the Mughal Empire was crumbling in the 18th century, when scholars and saints fled from all directions and set up a vast network of colleges and khaniqahs throughout the city. To date, every alley of the old city houses several shrines of the luminaries of Peshawar's past. Last winter, we went on several walking tours of sacred sites between five gates of the ancient city.